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That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans , including the Lenape , whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking , included Staten Island ; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in by Giovanni da Verrazzano , a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. Courtly love Courtly love was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.

Medieval literature is filled with examples of knights setting out on adventures and performing various deeds or services for ladies because of their "courtly love"; this kind of love is a literary fiction created for the entertainment of the nobility, but as time passed, these ideas about love changed and attracted a larger audience.

In the high Middle Ages , a "game of love" developed around these ideas as a set of social practices. Courtly love began in the ducal and princely courts of Aquitaine , Champagne , ducal Burgundy and the Norman Kingdom of Sicily at the end of the eleventh century. In essence, courtly love was an experience between erotic desire and spiritual attainment, "a love at once illicit and morally elevating and disciplined, humiliating and exalting and transcendent "; the term "courtly love" was first popularized by Gaston Paris and has since come under a wide variety of definitions and uses.

The beginnings of prose

Its interpretation and influences continue to be a matter of critical debate. Paris said amour courtois was ennobling discipline; the lover accepts the independence of his mistress and tries to make himself worthy of her by acting bravely and honorably and by doing whatever deeds she might desire, subjecting himself to a series of tests to prove to her his ardor and commitment.

Sexual satisfaction, Paris said, may not have been a goal or end result, but the love was not platonic either, as it was based on sexual attraction; the term and Paris's definition were soon accepted and adopted. In C. Lewis wrote The Allegory of Love further solidifying courtly love as a "love of a specialized sort, whose characteristics may be enumerated as Humility, Courtesy and the Religion of Love".

Historians such as D. Robertson , Jr. Moore and E. Talbot Donaldson in the s, were critical of the term as being a modern invention, Donaldson calling it "The Myth of Courtly Love ", because it is not supported in medieval texts. In addition, other terms and phrases associated with "courtliness" and "love" are common throughout the Middle Ages. Though Paris used a term with little support in the contemporaneous literature, it was not a neologism and does usefully describe a particular conception of love and focuses on the courtliness, at its essence.

Richard Trachsler says that "the concept of courtly literature is linked to the idea of the existence of courtly texts, texts produced and read by men and women sharing some kind of elaborate culture they all have in common". He argues that many of the texts that scholars claim to be courtly include "uncourtly" texts, argues that there is no clear way to determine "where courtliness ends and uncourtliness starts" because readers would enjoy texts which were supposed to be courtly without realizing they were enjoying texts which were uncourtly. This presents a clear problem in the understanding of courtliness; the practice of courtly love developed in the castle life of four regions: Aquitaine, Provence and ducal Burgundy, from around the time of the First Crusade.

Eleanor of Aquitaine brought ideals of courtly love from Aquitaine first to the court of France to England , her daughter Marie, Countess of Champagne brought courtly behavior to the Count of Champagne's court.

Spanish novels adapted into films

Courtly love found expression in the lyric poems written by troubadours, such as William IX, Duke of Aquitaine , one of the first troubadour poets. Poets adopted the terminology of feudalism , declaring themselves the vassal of the lady and addressing her as midons, which had dual benefits: allowing the poet to use a code name and at the same time flattering her by addressing her as his lord. The troubadour's model of the ideal lady was the wife of his employer or lord, a lady of higher status the rich and powerful female head of the castle.

When her husband was away on Crusade or elsewhere she dominated cultural affairs; the lady was rich and powerful and the poet gave voice to the aspirations of the courtier class, for only those who were noble could engage in courtly love. This new kind of love saw nobility not based on wealth and family history, but on character and actions.


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Since at the time some marriages among nobility had little to do with modern perspectives of what constitutes love, courtly love was a way for nobles to express the love not found in their marriage. These "lovers" had short trysts in secret, which might not physically. On the other hand, continual references t. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth; the pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size.

In the U. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, newer editions or reprintings of older books. Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit.

First editions of many modern books genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide; the early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, a network of railways.

The Routledge's Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until , offered the traveling public 1, unique titles; the German-language market supported examples of cheap paper-bound books: Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British and American Authors in These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a direct precursor to mass-market paperbacks ran to over 5, volumes. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November ; the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in , but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short.

It proved an immediate financial success in the United Kingdom in when Penguin Books adopted many of Albatross ' innovations, including a conspicuous logo and color-coded covers for different genres. British publisher Allen Lane invested his own financial capital to launch the Penguin Books imprint in , initiating the paperback revolution in the English-language book-market by releasing ten reprint titles. Lane intended to produce inexpensive books, he purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep unit prices low, looked to non-traditional book-selling retail locations.

La Celestina

Booksellers were reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, the books sold well. After that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, the name "Penguin" became associated with the word " paperback ". In French, the term livre de poche is still in use today.

De Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market. To reach an broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences; because of its number-one position in what became a long list of pocket editions, James Hilton's Lost Horizon is cited as the first American paperback book.

Through the circulation of the paperback in kiosks and bookstores and intellectual knowledge was able to reach the masses. This occurred at the same time that the masses were starting to attend university, leading to the student revolts of prompting open access to knowledge. The paperback book meant that more people were able to and access knowledge and this led to people wanting more and more of it; this accessibility posed a threat to the wealthy by imposing that. His marriage in to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political " cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy.

At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain , her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from until his own death.

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In , he became King of Navarre by conquest. In he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth. Ferdinand had a role in inaugurating the first European encounters in the future Americas, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus , in That year was the final victory in the war with Granada which defeated the last Muslim state in Iberia and all of Western Europe.

This brought to a close the centuries-long Christian reconquest of Iberia. At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I , co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal , succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain. However, during the regency of Ferdinand, many called him the King of Spain as distinct from his daughter Joanna, "queen of Castile". They were married with a clear prenuptial agreement on sharing power, under the joint motto " tanto monta, monta tanto. The two young monarchs were obliged to fight a civil war against Joan of Castile , the purported daughter of Henry IV , were swiftly successful; when Ferdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon in , the Crown of Castile and the various territories of the Crown of Aragon were united in a personal union.

The various states were not formally administered as a single unit, but as separate political units under the same Crown; the first years of Ferdinand and Isabella's joint rule saw the Spanish conquest of the Nasrid dynasty of the Emirate of Granada , the last Islamic al-Andalus entity on the Iberian peninsula, completed in The completion of the Reconquista was not the only significant act performed by Ferdinand and Isabella in that year.

Brown Digital Repository | Theses and Dissertations

In March , the monarchs issued the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews called the Alhambra Decree , a document which ordered all Jews either to be baptised and convert to Christianity or to leave the country. In the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the entire world beyond Europe between Portugal and Castile for conquest and dominion purposes — by a north—south line drawn down the Atlantic Ocean. This was practised by the Spanish inquisitors on the converso Marrano Jewish population of Spain. Ferdinand destroyed over ten thousand Arabic manuscripts in Granada alone; the latter part of Ferdinand's life was taken up with disputes with successive Kings of France over control of Italy , the so-called Italian Wars.

La Celestina : Fernando De Rojas :

Ferdinand allied with various Italian princes and with Emperor Maximilian I to expel the French by and install Alfonso's son, Ferdinand, on the Neapolitan throne. In Homer's Iliad he is portrayed as an energetic and powerful warrior, but in medieval literature he becomes a witty and licentious figure who facilitates the affair between Troilus and Cressida.

In Shakespeare's play Troilus and Cressida, he is portrayed as an aged degenerate and coward who ends the play by telling the audience he will bequeath them his "diseases". In Homer's Iliad, Pandarus is the son of Lycaon.